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Hydrogen peroxide

Sijhawm: 2021-04-29 Ntaus: 121

Ntshiab hydrogen peroxide yog cov kua tsis muaj xim uas yog miscible nrog dej. Nws yog feem ntau muab raws li 40% (w / w) tov tab sis kuj tau txais txog li ca 70% (w / w). Nws yog siv los ua tshuaj dawb.

 

Kev siv cov tshuaj hydrogen peroxide

Cov tshuaj bleaching ntawm hydrogen peroxide yog siv nyob rau hauv ntau lub lag luam. Tej zaum nws qhov kev paub zoo tshaj plaws niaj hnub siv yog nyob rau hauv cov khoom lag luam uas siv hauv kev ntxhua khaub ncaws, piv txwv li hauv qee hom VanishTM. Feem ntau ntawm hydrogen peroxide yog siv los ua sodium perborate thiab sodium percarbonate, uas yog siv los ua cov tshuaj dawb huv hauv cov kua thiab cov tshuaj detergents. Sodium perborate, NaBO3.4H2O, yog tsim los ntawm kev ntxiv hydrogen peroxide rau kev daws ntawm sodium metaborate thiab sodium hydroxide. Sodium percarbonate yog npaj los ntawm kev ntxiv hydrogen peroxide rau kev daws ntawm sodium carbonate.

Daim duab 1 Kev siv hydrogen peroxide.

 

Daim duab 2 Tus kingfisher muaj peev xwm pub tau nyob rau hauv ib tug dej qias neeg yav dhau los uas tau raug ntxuav los ntawm kev kho nws nrog kev daws ntawm hydrogen peroxide.
Los ntawm kev tso cai los ntawm Solvay.    

Thaum nws siv nyob rau hauv cov tshuaj detergents rau ntau qhov ntau ntawm hydrogen peroxide, feem ntau yog siv nyob rau hauv kev daws rau bleach ntawv (ua kom nws brightness), ntoo pulp thiab fabrics. Thiab tsis ntev los no, cov nroj tsuag loj heev tau tuaj rau hauv kwj dej hauv Antwerp (Belgium) thiab ntawm qhov chaw ua lag luam ntawm Map Ta Phut (Thailand). Ib tsob ntoo loj thib peb tau tsim nyob rau sab hnub tuaj ntawm Saudi Arabia, ntawm Persian Gulf, ntawm Jubail. Tag nrho peb cov nroj tsuag yuav tsim hydrogen peroxide uas yuav siv los ua epoxypropane (propylene oxide) los ntawm oxidation ncaj qha ntawm propene. Epoxypropane yuav, nyob rau hauv lem, yuav siv lub ntsiab los tsim polyurethanes.

 

Daim duab 3 Ib qho kev pom ntawm Man Ta Phut petrochemical complex ntawm Gulf of Thailand, ze rau ciam teb nrog Cambodia, Ib tsob nroj los tsim cov hydrogen peroxide tsis ntev los no tau raug tso tawm hauv txoj haujlwm. Nws muaj peev xwm ua tau ntau dua 330 000 tonnes ntawm hydrogen peroxide ib xyoos, yog cov nroj tsuag loj tshaj plaws hauv ntiaj teb. Daim duab no qhia tau hais tias distillation yees siv rau kev sib cais ntawm alkanes los ntawm cov pa roj. Cov hydrogen xav tau los ua hydrogen peroxide yog muab los ntawm methane hauv cov nkev ntuj.
Los ntawm kev tso cai ntawm Kev Hlub Krittaya (Wikimedia Commons)    

Kev tsim tawm txhua xyoo ntawm hydrogen peroxide

(qhia raws li H2O2 100%)

Ntiaj teb 4.3 lab tonnes1    

Tuam Tshoj 1.5 lab tonnes2    

US 400 000 tonnes 2    

Belgium 300 000 tonnes 2    

Thaib teb 300 000 tonnes 2    

Canada 200 000 tonnes 2    

Cov ntaub ntawv los ntawm:
1. Merchant Research and Consulting Ltd. 2015
2. Kwv yees los ntawm Merchant Research thiab Consulting Ltd. 2015

Kev tsim cov hydrogen peroxide

Tshaj 99% ntawm hydrogen peroxide yog tsim los ntawm cov txheej txheem autoxidation.

Cov theem tseem ceeb yog:
a) hydrogenation ntawm anthraquinone
b) oxidation ntawm qhov tshwm sim anthraquinol
c) extraction ntawm hydrogen peroxide kua
d) purification thiab concentration ntawm hydrogen peroxide

Daim duab 4 Ib qho kev pom ntawm lub chaw tsim khoom rau hydrogen peroxide hauv Leuna, ze Leipzig hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees.
Los ntawm kev tso cai ntawm Arkema.    

 

cov txheej txheem

Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tau sau tseg hauv daim duab 4.

(a) Hydrogenation ntawm anthroquinone

2-ethyl derivative ntawm anthraquinone feem ntau yog siv rau hauv cov txheej txheem.

Ib qho kev daws teeb meem ntawm 2-ethylanthraquinone nyob rau hauv ib qho kev sib xyaw hnyav uas muaj cov tsis muaj polar hydrocarbon thiab polar solvent, thiab kev ncua ntawm cov nickel lossis palladium-based catalyst ntawm cov khoom txhawb nqa, yog hydrogenated siv hydrogen gas ntawm ca 320 K. mus rau 2- alkylanthraquinol tshwm sim. Cov catalyst raug tshem tawm los ntawm kev pom thiab rov ua dua tshiab.

(b) Oxidation ntawm anthraquinol

Kev daws ntawm 2-ethylanthraquinol yog tom qab ntawd oxidized los ntawm huab cua mus rau hydroperoxide, uas reacts nyob rau hauv dej los hloov kho 2-ethylanthraquinone thiab tsim ib tug dilute tov ntawm hydrogen peroxide.

Daim duab 5 Kev tsim cov hydrogen peroxide siv 2-ethylantraquinone.

Yog li tag nrho cov tshuaj tiv thaiv yog:

 

Daim duab 6 Lub tsev oxidiser rau kev tsim cov hydrogen peroxide ntawm Jarrie, sab qab teb ntawm Grenoble, Fabkis.
Los ntawm kev tso cai ntawm Arkema.    

(c) Extraction ntawm hydrogen peroxide kua

Cov dej yog ntxiv rau rho tawm cov peroxide raws li cov tshuaj aqueous uas muaj 40% hydrogen peroxide. Cov txheej txheem organic solvent yog rov ua dua mus rau chav tsev hydrogenation rau cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ntxiv.

(d) Purification thiab concentration ntawm hydrogen peroxide

Cov tshuaj aqueous hydrogen peroxide yog kho nrog cov kuab tshuaj organic thiab los ntawm huab cua los ntawm kev tshem tawm cov seem quinone thiab cov kuab tshuaj thiab tsim cov qauv 40% cov khoom. Qee daim ntawv thov xav tau cov khoom siv ntau dua uas yog tsim los ntawm lub tshuab nqus tsev lossis distillation mus rau qhov siab txog li 70%.

Hydrogen peroxide nyob rau hauv nws daim ntawv purest yog inherently ruaj khov. Txawm li cas los xij, yog tias coj mus rau hauv kev sib cuag nrog qee yam kab mob (tsuas yog cov hlau hnyav) nws tuaj yeem decompose. Yog li ntawd, stabilizers feem ntau yog ntxiv rau cov khoom. Lawv ua los ntawm kev sib txuas nrog txhua qhov ntawm kev hloov pauv hlau ions tam sim no uas yuav txwv tsis pub cov decomposition ntawm hydrogen peroxide. Cov tshuaj stabilizers yog sodium stannate (IV) (uas hydrolyzes rau tin (IV) hydroxide) thiab ntau yam phosphates.

 Daim duab 7 Hydrogen peroxide daws tau raug tshem tawm, tau taug kev los ntawm qhov chaw nws tau tsim. Nws yog siv los ua hydrazine. Hydrazine yog siv los ua tus propellant nyob rau hauv feem ntau satellites thiab ua ib tug precursor rau sodium azide (ib tug gas-forming tus neeg sawv cev nyob rau hauv lub hnab cua) thiab rau ntau yam tshuaj tua kab.

Los ntawm kev tso cai ntawm Arkema.

   

   


Yav dhau los: Kev siv cov hydrogen peroxide

Tom ntej: Ntsuab propulsion los ntawm H₂O₂ hauv foob pob ua ntxaij